Formulating consumer product packaging standards that meet consumer needs and protecting consumer interests through standardized means is an important issue facing standardization workers.
3.1 The Standardization of Consumer Packages in International and Foreign Advanced Countries
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) attaches great importance to the topic of â€œpackaging to meet consumer needsâ€. Its Consumer Policy Committee (ISO/COPOLCO) formulated the 41th "ISO Guide" Packaging Standards - Consumer Needs as early as 1984, emphasizing the need to include consumer needs when drafting various packaging standards. In the standards, priority should be given to the design and production of packaging from the perspective of protecting the needs of consumers to reflect the principle of â€œconsumer firstâ€.
In 1989, the International Organization for Standardization Packaging Technical Committee (ISO/TC122) developed the international standard of ISO 8317 â€œSafety packaging for children â€“ requirements and test methods for re-sealable packagingâ€ and formally proposed the concept of â€œchild safety packagingâ€ internationally. , and made provisions for its requirements and test methods.
The United States was the first country to conduct children's packaging research and develop standards for its testing methods. As early as 1970, the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) promulgated the "Drug Safety Packaging Regulations," which stipulated that certain toxic drugs and chemicals must be packaged in children's safety. In the past 30 years since the implementation of the regulations, child poisoning accidents in the United States have greatly reduced.
Since the 1970s, some other countries have also introduced the United States child safety packaging standard testing methods. There are many child safety packages based on this type of test method in the world. The data show that since the introduction of such testing methods, the accidents of children in these countries swallowing dangerous products have been significantly reduced.
In view of the frequent occurrence of child poisoning, the European Community has also issued the â€œEC Directive on the Packaging of Dangerous Products (67/548)â€, which stipulates that such products should be child-safely packaged and must comply with the international standard ISO 8317.
3.2 Progress of China's consumer product packaging standardization
China is currently actively conducting the standardization study of "consumer packaging meets the needs of consumers", aiming at standardizing the packaging market in China, improving the quality of products, and protecting the interests of consumers.
(1) China issued GB/T17306-1998 â€œThe Demand of Packaging Standard Consumersâ€ in 1998. The standard stipulates the basic principles and requirements that consumer product packaging should follow in order to meet consumers' various needs, in order to guide the drafting of various standards related to consumer product packaging, and the design and production of consumer product packaging. The standard provides:
- Packaging materials should not produce substances that could harm people or other lives;
- The relevant safety warnings and methods of use shall be marked on the packaging of harmful contents;
- The packaging of harmful contents should be clearly distinguished from the packaging of food or beverages. When necessary, different colors, different shapes or other methods should be used to distinguish them from each other so as to avoid misunderstandings by consumers;
â€”â€”The opening method of packaging should be reasonable and convenient, and special consideration should be given to the different requirements of weak consumers such as children and people with disabilities;
- Safely locking devices shall be provided for the packaging of harmful contents, which shall not only make it difficult for children to open, but also facilitate the opening of disabled persons;
- The size, size and shape of the package should not cause consumers to misunderstand the content of their contents;
- The packaging specification should be suitable for the average consumption rate of its end use and product, so as to ensure that consumers can consume the contents within the warranty period under reasonable circumstances;
- Avoid excessively meticulous packaging. When not violating other requirements, the cheapest materials should be used to minimize the packaging costs attached to the product price.
(2) The standardization of "children's safety packaging" in China has begun. According to the standard revision plan of the National Bureau of Quality and Technical Supervision of the People's Republic of China, the Institute of Standardization and Information Classification and Coding of the People's Republic of China takes the lead. According to the international standard ISO8317, the National Standard for Requirements and Test Methods for Re-sealable Packaging for Children's Safety Packaging is being drafted. draft. The standard will provide a scientific and easy-to-operate test procedure for the type approval test of children's safe packaging, and provide technical guarantee for children's safe packaging in China, so as to promote the rapid development of children's safe packaging in China.
According to the investigation and analysis, the most important factor affecting the development of children's safe packaging in China is as follows: For toxic consumer goods, there are no packaging regulations for protecting children's safety in China, nor are there standards for product standards and testing methods in this area; most consumers have not yet done so. This awareness; and production companies generally do not actively implement child safety packaging because they consider production costs.
However, the implementation of child safety packaging in our country is of great significance. According to the most conservative estimate, if childrenâ€™s safe packaging is implemented, at least 60,000 children in China will be exempt from accidents each year, then at least nearly 100 million yuan in medical expenses and a considerable number of family tragedies will be saved each year; and childrenâ€™s safe packaging will be implemented. It also reflects the concern of the country and the whole society for children's health. It not only has direct economic benefits, but also immeasurable social benefits. Therefore, China's pharmaceutical and chemical industry departments should take effective measures to implement child safety packaging as soon as possible. Such packaging is of great importance to the protection of childrenâ€™s consumers who have the weakest self-protection ability among consumers.
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