Jiehui observation: vaccination is expected to prevent cancer

"Common" cancer cells may not be realized, and many so-called healthy people have tiny tumors that are cancerous.

For example, from an autopsy of a 40 to 50-year-old healthy woman who died unexpectedly, about one-third of women had tiny tumors in situ in their mammary glands; a similar phenomenon was found in the male prostate. Most people aged 50 to 70 can also find tumors in situ by thyroid biopsy, but the vast majority of these people will not develop tumors. In addition, circulating tumor cells can still be detected in the blood after 20-30 years of cure for some breast cancer patients, called tumor dormancy.

Most humans have cancerous cells but they do not develop disease. This largely depends on the T cell immune monitoring and immune clearance in the body. The immune system will promptly remove these precancerous mutant cells to protect the body from tumors.

Oncogenesis is the result of many years of accumulation of precancerous cell mutations and complex interactions with the microenvironment, especially the interaction with the immune system. Poor immune monitoring or failure is the direct external cause of tumorigenesis the reason. Many human bodies have cancer cells but they do not necessarily turn into tumors. Previous studies have found that poor immune monitoring or failure is the direct external cause of tumors.

The anti-cancer effect of gp96

The researchers found that the heat shock protein gp96 derived from the placenta carries a variety of embryonic antigens, and these carcinoembryonic antigens have a surprising similarity to tumor antigens. After immunizing mice and rats with gp96-antigen complex purified from mouse and rat placenta, the experimenters can activate tumor-specific T cells and memory T cells, and effectively prevent the occurrence of breast cancer and melanoma. And gp96 purified from human placenta also carries a variety of T cell epitope antigens, including typical tumor antigens such as HER2 and MUC1.

Studies have shown that the activation and expression of HER2, MUC1, uPAR and other genes directly promote dormant tumor cells at rest to escape from dormancy and enter an active division phase, thereby growing into a deadly tumor, suggesting that placental gp96 can be used as a new broad-spectrum tumor prevention Sex vaccine.

As a chaperone protein, gp96 can bind to the antigen peptide library in cells and cross-present the bound antigen to MHC class I molecules to directly activate specific killer T cells, and killer T cells play a key role in controlling tumorigenesis. The re-activation and expression of proto-oncogene / embryonic gene is an important cause of canceration of tumor cells. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed that placental gp96 binds to at least dozens of proto-oncogene antigens / embryo antigens. After application of placental gp96, immunization can activate multiple protocarcinoma / Embryonic protein-specific T cells, effectively monitor and eliminate these cancerous cells in the early stage of tumorigenesis, thereby inhibiting tumorigenesis in the initial stage.

The placenta gp96 combines at least dozens of proto-oncogene and embryonic gene antigens, and may combine with currently unknown effective tumor antigens. It is an ideal multivalent antigen vaccine, which can theoretically prevent the occurrence of multiple tumors. The gp96 autologous vaccine derived from the patient's tumor tissue has been clinically used in a variety of tumor treatments in European and American countries. It has never experienced serious toxic and side effects and autoimmune diseases, and has high safety.

It is expected to become a variety of anti-cancer vaccines

The so-called tumor preventive vaccines currently used in clinical practice mainly focus on preventing the infection of pathogenic microorganisms that cause tumors through vaccine immunization to indirectly reduce the occurrence of specific tumors, such as HPV (human papilloma virus) vaccine to prevent cervical cancer, and hepatitis B vaccine to prevent liver cancer.

In the real sense, the research and design of preventive vaccines that directly inhibit tumorigenesis have only stayed in concept for a long time. The main reason is that it is difficult to find high immune activity, safe and reliable antigens that can effectively prevent tumors as targets for vaccine design. Points, including tumor-specific antigens and proteins overexpressed in tumor cells.

Studies have found that the use of tumor-associated antigens (such as MUC1 and HER2), tissue-specific self-proteins (such as α-lactalbumin) or tumor stem cells as vaccines, although animal tests have shown that they can prevent specific tumorigenesis, are prone to autoimmune diseases. Or it is difficult to prepare in large quantities, which is still far from clinical application.

Compared with the above monovalent vaccines, gp96 derived from placenta binds at least dozens of carcinoembryonic antigens and has a broad-spectrum antitumor immune activity; gp96 autoimmune tumors have been approved by the FDA in the United States as orphan drugs for the treatment of melanoma and kidney cancer The safety is high; and the placenta is easy to obtain, and the placenta gp96 does not have problems in large-scale preparation technology. Therefore, the placenta gp96 is expected to be developed into a vaccine against various tumors.

Realistic significance

According to the latest edition of the 2012 China Cancer Registry Annual Report, China has about 3.12 million new cancer cases each year and more than 2 million deaths due to cancer, which means that 6 people are diagnosed with cancer every minute, so there is an urgent need to develop effective Cancer preventive vaccine.

Healthy people can effectively reduce the incidence of tumors through immunization, especially for high-risk groups, such as those with high incidence of hepatitis B infection of liver cancer, women over 45 years old with high incidence of breast cancer, and people with high incidence of familial cancer caused by genetic mutations.

The famous American actress Angelina Jolie recently wrote in the New York Times that, as a member of the population with a high incidence of cancer, in order to prevent breast cancer, her breasts have been surgically removed. When the news spread, the world moved. In any case, Julie's self-cutting double breast, the pathetic act of preventing tumors will surely be included in the history of humans fighting cancer.

However, as Julie said: "Life is accompanied by countless challenges. Only when we face the challenges that we can undertake and control, we will not be afraid." We have a magic vaccine to prevent cancer. Challenge, mankind no longer has fear.

Cancer prevention conforms to the concept of inclusive medicine advocated by our country, and sharing a world with low incidence of cancer is our goal.

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