Since its launch, genomic research has achieved world-renowned achievements. A large amount of new gene data has forced us to consider the function of the proteins encoded by these genes. Not only that, after the cells synthesize proteins, these proteins often have to undergo post-translational processing and modification. In other words, a gene corresponds to not one protein but may be several kinds or even dozens. How do cells that contain thousands or even tens of thousands of proteins work? Or how do these proteins work, interact, and coordinate with each other? These questions are far from being answered by genomic research. It is against this background that proteomics came into being. Proteomics is an emerging field of research that has emerged in the post-genomic era. Its main task is to identify and identify all proteins in cells, tissues, or organisms, and analyze protein functions and patterns.
The main content of current proteomics is to carry out proteome analysis while establishing and developing technical methods for proteome research. There are roughly two aspects to proteome analysis. On the one hand, the two-dimensional gel electrophoresis can obtain a map of all proteins of the body, tissue or cell under normal physiological conditions, and the relevant data will be used as a two-dimensional reference map and database of the body, tissue or cell to be detected. A series of such two-dimensional reference maps and databases have been established and can be searched online. The significance of establishing a two-dimensional reference map is to provide a basis for further analysis. Another aspect of proteome analysis is comparative analysis of changes in the proteome under changing physiological conditions. Such as changes in protein expression, changes in post-translational modifications, or analysis of changes in protein localization at the subcellular level under possible conditions.
In addition to the application of proteome in basic science (such as protein interaction, protein quantification, etc.), it also has potential and huge application value in the field of medical work, which can help medical scientists to find abnormal proteins that cause diseases. Find new target proteins for drug action.
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